Since World War II OECD countries have increasingly used taxation to achieve a variety of economic policy objectives of which stimulating economic activity and employment are usually the most important. The tax system is also used to create a favourable climate for investment, to spur business innovation and to promote long-term sustainable environmental policy. More recently, policies have focused on stimulating child care and encouraging citizens to work for longer. This book discusses the effects of taxation on the economy and its development. It aims to provide the reader with the necessary empirical information, while at the same time presenting an overview of the latest theory. In doing so, it touches on many relevant policy issues. This important book will appeal not only to economists but also to public choice scholars and political scientists.